RTU stands for Remote Terminal Unit. An RTU is an electronic device that is controlled by a microprocessor. This device interfaces objects in physical world  to a Distributed Control System (DCS) or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system by transmitting telemetry data to the system. Telemetry data in the sense means the measurements or other data that are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring. An RTU is a device installed at a remote location to collect datas, codes the datas into a format that is transmittable and transmits the data back to a central station, or master.

It is typically utilized in an industrial environment and serves a similar purpose to programmable logic circuits (PLCs) but to a higher degree i.e ( RTUs are often considered for gathering telemetry data over large geographical areas, because they use wireless communication whereas PLC’s are commonly implemented in situations where local control is needed).  An RTU is considered a self-contained computer as it has all the basic parts that, together, define a computer: a processor, memory and storage.

Automated welding can provide large gains in productivity and profitability – in the right applications.

Welding is arguably the most complex manufacturing process and is frequently the least understood. A surprising number of companies spend millions of dollars to automate assembly while ignoring the welding process. Manual welding is still the best process for many assemblies. However, many assemblers are implementing automated welding systems to increase quality, productivity and profitability.

Welding automation can be broken down into two basic categories: semiautomatic and fully automatic. In semiautomatic welding, an operator manually loads the parts into the welding fixture. A weld controller then keeps the welding process, motion of the torch, and stillness of the parts to preset parameters. After the weld is completed, the operator removes the completed assembly and the process begins again.

In fully automatic welding, a custom machine, or series of machines, loads the workpiece, indexes the part or torch into position, accomplishes the weld, monitors the quality of the joint and unloads the finished product. Additional “part in place” and final product quality checks may also be designed into the machine if necessary. Depending on the operation, a machine operator may be necessary.

Not every welding operation is a good candidate for automated welding. Applications will benefit most from automation if the quality or function of the weld is critical; if repetitive welds must be made on identical parts; or if the parts have accumulated significant value prior to welding. Excellent candidates for automation include batteries, capacitor cans, solenoids, sensors, transducers, metal bellows, relay enclosures, light bulb elements, fuel filters, thermos flasks, medical components, nuclear devices, pipe fittings, transformer cores, valve elements and airbag components. Companies that assemble limited quantities of products requiring accurate or critical welds may benefit from a semiautomatic system, but would probably not need fully automated systems.

Benefits of Automated Welding

Automated welding systems offer four main advantages: improved weld quality, increased output, decreased scrap and decreased variable labor costs.

Weld quality consists of two factors: weld integrity and repeatability. Automated welding systems ensure weld integrity through electronic weld process controllers. Combining mechanized torch and part motions with electronic recall of welding parameters results in a higher quality weld than can be accomplished manually. This offers instantaneous quality control. Furthermore, because a weld is made only once, defects are readily visible and detectable. Humans tend to “smooth over” a mistake with the torch, hiding lack of penetration or a possibly flawed weld. In some cases, leak testing and vision systems can be integrated into fully automated systems to provide additional quality control.

Repeatability is a function of the quality of the weld process controller and of the engineering of the machine motions. Mechanized welding provides repeatable input parameters for more repeatable output. Assuming the controller is functioning properly, the question becomes: Can the mechanisms of the machine position the parts or the torch within the specified tolerances for welding? The answer to this question will attest to the quality of system purchased.

Semiautomatic and fully automatic systems increase output by eliminating the human factor from the welding process. Production weld speeds are set at a percentage of maximum by the machine, not by an operator. With minimal setup time and higher weld speeds, a mechanized welding system can easily outpace a skilled manual welder.

Automating the torch or part motions, and part placement, reduces the possibility of human error. A weld takes place only when all requirements are satisfied. With manual welding, reject welds often increase when welders become fatigued. Depending on the value of the parts when they arrive at the welding station, the cost savings in scrap alone may justify the purchase of an automated welding system. Automation should also be considered when assemblers need to minimize the risk of shipping a bad part to a customer.

Typically, a semiautomatic system has at least twice the output of a skilled welder. A fully automatic system can be built with twin welding positioners on an automated shuttle. Such a system can load and unload parts at one station while welding occurs at the other. In this way, a fully automatic system can run at four Arial the pace of semiautomatic system, or eight Arial the pace of a skilled welder.

In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232[1] is a standard introduced in 1960[2] for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment or data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232 standard had been commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997.

An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and other peripheral devices. RS-232, when compared to later interfaces such as RS-422, RS-485 and Ethernet, has lower transmission speed, short maximum cable length, large voltage swing, large standard connectors, no multipoint capability and limited multidrop capability. In modern personal computers, USB has displaced RS-232 from most of its peripheral interface roles. Many computers no longer come equipped with RS-232 ports (although some motherboards come equipped with a COM port header that allows the user to install a bracket with a DE-9 port) and must use either an external USB-to-RS-232 converter or an internal expansion card with one or more serial ports to connect to RS-232 peripherals. Nevertheless, thanks to their simplicity and past ubiquity, RS-232 interfaces are still used—particularly in industrial machines, networking equipment, and scientific instruments where a short-range, point-to-point, low-speed wired data connection is adequate.

Scope of the standard

The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard RS-232-C as of 1969 defines:

  • Electrical signal characteristics such as voltage levels, signaling rate, timing, and slew-rate of signals, voltage withstand level, short-circuit behavior, and maximum load capacitance.
  • Interface mechanical characteristics, pluggable connectors and pin identification.
  • Functions of each circuit in the interface connector.
  • Standard subsets of interface circuits for selected telecom applications.

The standard does not define such elements as the character encoding (i.e. ASCII, EBCDIC, or others), the framing of characters (start or stop bits, etc.), transmission order of bits, or error detection protocols. The character format and transmission bit rate are set by the serial port hardware which may also contain circuits to convert the internal logic levels to RS-232 compatible signal levels. The standard does not define bit rates for transmission, except that it says it is intended for bit rates lower than 20,000 bits per second.

Limitations of the standard

Because RS-232 is used beyond the original purpose of interconnecting a terminal with a modem, successor standards have been developed to address the limitations. Issues with the RS-232 standard include:

  • The large voltage swings and requirement for positive and negative supplies increases power consumption of the interface and complicates power supply design. The voltage swing requirement also limits the upper speed of a compatible interface.
  • Single-ended signaling referred to a common signal ground limits the noise immunity and transmission distance.
  • Multi-drop connection among more than two devices is not defined. While multi-drop “work-arounds” have been devised, they have limitations in speed and compatibility.
  • The standard does not address the possibility of connecting a DTE directly to a DTE, or a DCE to a DCE. Null modem cables can be used to achieve these connections, but these are not defined by the standard, and some such cables use different connections than others.
  • The definitions of the two ends of the link are asymmetric. This makes the assignment of the role of a newly developed device problematic; the designer must decide on either a DTE-like or DCE-like interface and which connector pin assignments to use.
  • The handshaking and control lines of the interface are intended for the setup and takedown of a dial-up communication circuit; in particular, the use of handshake lines for flow control is not reliably implemented in many devices.
  • No method is specified for sending power to a device. While a small amount of current can be extracted from the DTR and RTS lines, this is only suitable for low-power devices such as mice.
  • The 25-pin D-sub connector recommended in the standard is large compared to current practice.

An automated production line is comprised of a series of workstations linked by a transfer system and an electrical control system. Each station performs a specific operation and the product is processed step by step as it moves along the line in a pre-defined production sequence.

A fully automated production line does not need people directly involved in the operation, and all or part of the process of the production is completed by mechanical equipment and automated systems. Therefore, in an automated environment, the tasks of human are more likely to change to system design, adjustment, supervision and monitoring the operation of the system rather than controlling it directly.

There are three types of automation in production: Hard automation (also known as ‘fixed automation’), programmable automation and soft automation (also known as ‘flexible automation’).  The type of automation to utilise is determined by the type of product and volume.

Following the programmed commands, an automated production line is a process that raw materials enter and finished products leave, with little or no human intervention. The fast, stable and accurate production flow contributes to the reduction of production times and the cost of the manufactured products. The use of automated production lines significantly reduces production costs and labour costs, and minimizes human errors, ensuring output consistency and quality.

The use of automated production lines frees up people from the drudgery of repetitive tasks – replace human labours in tasks done in dangerous environments, and perform tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed and endurance.

Carefully planned investment in automation can also make good financial sense. A two or three year payback on reduced labour costs is the equivalent of an excellent 30%-50% return on investment.

Moreover, many of the world’s most successful economies, such as Germany and Japan, have high investment in automation.

Programmable logic controller (PLC) control panels or also known as PLC Automation Panel are one of the most important and efficient kinds of control panels. Which are generally used in variety of electronic and electrical circuit fittings. PLC Control Panels are highly capable of giving higher output at less power consumption. Integrated with solid PLC logic and flawless PLC hardware programming.

Ease in modification of logic, reduced size, means of remote communications and advances in the technology have made PLC Automation Control Panels an edge over conventional relay based systems. Control Systems Engineers has provided PLC based Panels from PLC of Allen Bradley, Siemens, Modicon, GE Fanuc. From small I/O application to the complex I/O systems are provided by the Control Systems Engineers. Control Systems Engineers have developed communication software’s for remote communication of the PLC Panels in various different protocols. With PLC based Panels HMI/MMI are provided to provide the operator various messages and controls of the process plants touch screen MMI are provided. To effective control of the system.

What is a PLC in a Control Panel?

A PLC takes a series of inputs, such as proximity sensors, level sensors, and speed sensors, and uses this information to control its outputs. These outputs can be motors, valves, alarms, and other user defined components.

What is an HMI in a Control Panel?

For a panel that may have frequent operator interaction a human machine interface (HMI) might be installed. An HMI provides a graphics-based visualization of the industrial control and monitoring system. The visualization the HMI provides allows the operator to easily see how different components are functioning within the specific process the panel is controlling.

To enable communication between panels the solution is now much more universal. Ethernet switches are installed in nearly every panel. In the past, DeviceNet, blue hose, and ASI BUS were used. They were replaced with ethernet due to its ease of use, availability, low cost and higher data transfer rates.

PLCs, HMIs and ethernet cables provide the basic communication tools every control panel needs to communicate with their human operators and other panels. The next core component in a control panels is motor control.

What is  Motor Control in a Panel?

Most panels exist to oversee some type of motor control. We equip our panels with either a variable frequency drive (VFD) or a contactor and overload set up depending on the complexity of the motor function the panel is controlling. A VFD will allow you to program how the motor operates and give the user control over the speed of the motor. A contactor and overload system is a simple on or off system that provides no further control of the motor.

Control Panel Power Supply and Protection

Power supply and protection are two components every panel has so it can function and function safely. The power supply will typically convert 480V or 120V AC to 24V DC as DC is generally regarded as a safer voltage to deal with inside the panel.

The other protection measure in every panel is circuit protection to preserve all the expensive and crucial components inside the panel. This is achieved through either circuit breakers or fuses.

A line reactor or power filter are two more common components found in most control panels. Again, these deal with controlling and cleaning electricity that are interacting with the panel and its different components to reduce inefficiencies and consume less energy.

Beyond these core components of human interface and communication, motor control and power supply and protection the features of each control panel will vary greatly depending on what it’s being designed to do. This creates a seemingly endless way to create and layout a panel.

Universal  Control Panel Layout Considerations

The layout of a panel depends on many factors. Beyond ensuring our panels meet UL Guidelines and are laid out to the manufacturer’s specifications, we also consider voltage, the end user and the environment where the panel is being installed.

What is Automation?

The word ‘Automation’ is derived from greek words “Auto”(self) and “Matos” (moving). Automation therefore is the mechanism for systems that “move by itself”. However, apart from this original sense of the word, automated systems also achieve significantly superior performance than what is possible with manual systems, in terms of power, precision and speed of operation.

Definition: Automation is a set of technologies that results in operation of machines and systems without significant human intervention and achieves performance superior to manual operation

The application of machines to tasks once performed by human beings or, increasingly, to tasks that would otherwise be impossible. Although the term mechanization is often used to refer to the simple replacement of human labour by machines, automation generally implies the integration of machines into a self-governing system.  Automation Systems may include Control Systems but the reverse is not true. Control Systems may be parts of Automation Systems.  The main function of control systems is to ensure that outputs follow the set points. However, Automation Systems may have much more functionality, such as computing set points for control systems, monitoring system performance, plant startup or shutdown, job and equipment scheduling etc. Automation Systems are essential for most modern industries.


Definition: Control is a set of technologies that achieves desired patterns of variations of operational parameters and sequences for machines and systems by providing the input signals necessary.

  1. Industrial Automation also involves significant amount of hardware technologies, related to Instrumentation and Sensing, Actuation and Drives, Electronics for Signal Conditioning, Communication and Display, Embedded as well as Stand-alone Computing Systems etc.
  2. As Industrial Automation systems grow more sophisticated in terms of the knowledge and algorithms they use, as they encompass larger areas of operation comprising several units or the whole of a factory, or even several of them, and as they integrate manufacturing with other areas of business, such as, sales and customer care, finance and the entire supply chain of the business, the usage of IT increases dramatically. However, the lower level Automation Systems that only deal with individual or , at best, a group of machines, make less use of IT and more of hardware, electronics and embedded computing.


Manufacturing processes, basically, produce finished product from raw/unfinished material using energy, manpower and equipment and infrastructure. Since an industry is essentially a “systematic economic activity”, the fundamental objective of any industry is to make profit. Roughly speaking, Profit = (Price/unit – Cost/unit) x Production Volume.

So profit can be maximized by producing good quality products, which may sell at higher price, in larger volumes with less production cost and time.

Automation can achieve all these in the following ways, Automation affects all of these factors. Firstly, automated machines have significantly lower production times. For example, in machine tools, manufacturing a variety of parts, significant setup times are needed for setting the operational configuration and parameters whenever a new part is loaded into the machine. This can lead to significant unproductive for expensive machines when a variety of products is manufactured. Similarly, systems such as Automated Guided Vehicles, Industrial Robots, Automated Crane and Conveyor Systems reduce material handling time. Automation also reduces cost of production significantly by efficient usage of energy, manpower and material.

The product quality that can be achieved with automated precision machines and processes cannot be achieved with manual operations. Moreover, since operation is automated, the same quality would be achieved for thousands of parts with little variation.

Industrial Products go through their life cycles, which consist of various stages.

  • At first, a product is conceived based on Market feedbacks, as well as Research and Development Activities.
  • Once conceived the product is designed. Prototype Manufacturing is generally needed to prove the design.
  • Once the design is proved, Production Planning and Installation must be carried out to ensure that the necessary resources and strategies for mass manufacturing are in place.
  • This is followed by the actual manufacture and quality control activities through which the product is mass-produced.
  • This is followed by a number of commercial activities through which the product is actually sold in the market.
  • Automation also reduces the overall product life cycle i.e., the time required to complete.

Automation systems can be categorized based on the flexibility and level of integration in manufacturing process operations. Various automation systems can be classified as follows

Fixed Automation: It is used in high volume production with dedicated equipment, which has a fixed set of operation and designed to be efficient for this set. Continuous flow and Discrete Mass Production systems use this automation. e.g. Distillation Process, Conveyors, Paint Shops, Transfer lines etc. A process using mechanized machinery to perform fixed and repetitive operations in order to produce a high volume of similar parts.

Programmable Automation: It is used for a changeable sequence of operation and configuration of the machines using electronic controls. However, non-trivial programming effort may be needed to reprogram the machine or sequence of operations. Investment on programmable equipment is less, as production process is not changed frequently. It is typically used in Batch process where job variety is low and product volume is medium to high, and sometimes in mass production also. E.g. in Steel Rolling Mills, Paper Mills etc.

Flexible Automation: It is used in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) which is invariably computer controlled. Human operators give high-level commands in the form of codes entered into computer identifying product and its location in the sequence and the lower level changes are done automatically. Each production machine receives settings/instructions from computer. This automatically loads/unloads required tools and carries out their processing instructions. After processing, products are automatically transferred to next machine. It is typically used in job shops and batch processes where product varieties are high and job volumes are medium to low. Such systems typically use Multipurpose CNC machines, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) etc.

Integrated Automation: It denotes complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and under coordination through digital information processing. It includes technologies such as computer-aided design and manufacturing, computer-aided process planning, computer numerical control machine tools, flexible machining systems, automated storage and retrieval systems, automated material handling systems such as robots and automated cranes and conveyors, computerized scheduling and production control. It may also integrate a business system through a common database. In other words, it symbolizes full integration of process and management operations using information and communication technologies. Typical examples of such technologies are seen in Advanced Process Automation Systems and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Degree of automation necessary for an individual manufacturing facility depends on manufacturing and assembly specifications, labor conditions and competitive pressure, labor cost and work requirements. One must remember that the investment on automation must be justified by the consequent increase in profitability. To exemplify, the appropriate contexts for Fixed and Flexible Automation are compared and contrasted.

Fixed automation is appropriate in the following circumstances.

  1. Low variability in product type as also in size, shape, part count and material
  2. Predictable and stable demand for 2- to 5-year time period, so that manufacturing capacity requirement is also stable
  3. High production volume desired per unit time
  4. Significant cost pressures due to competitive market conditions. So automation systems should be tuned to perform optimally for the particular product.



Switched Mode Power Supply is the source for many applications with required level of voltage configurations. One big level to another smaller one is the major aspect with an SMPS. A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) is an electronic circuit that converts power using switching devices that are turned on and off at high frequencies, and storage components such as inductors or capacitors to supply power when the switching device is in its non-conduction state. Switching power supplies have high efficiencies and are widely used in a variety of electronic equipment, including computers and other sensitive equipment requiring stable and efficient power supply. A switched-mode power supply is also known as a switch-mode power supply or switching-mode power supply.

The mode of rectification involves a rectifier bridge to effectively covert AC to DC with eliminating the ripples. Capacitor performs the ripple elimination with greater conduction of AC flow. The factors affecting the performance of each diode is manipulated and rectified efficiently. The harmonic generation is also a factor to discuss. With greater accuracy semi conductor devices, the losses also get minimized.

Switched-mode power supplies are classified according to the type of input and output voltages. The four major categories are:

  • AC to DC
  • DC to DC
  • DC to AC
  • AC to AC

A basic isolated AC to DC switched-mode power supply consists of:

  • Input rectifier and filter
  • Inverter consisting of switching devices such as MOSFETs
  • Transformer
  • Output rectifier and filter
  • Feedback and control circuit

The input DC supply from a rectifier or battery is fed to the inverter where it is turned on and off at high frequencies of between 20 KHz and 200 KHz by the switching MOSFET or power transistors. The high-frequency voltage pulses from the inverter are fed to the transformer primary winding, and the secondary AC output is rectified and smoothed to produce the required DC voltages. A feedback circuit monitors the output voltage and instructs the control circuit to adjust the duty cycle to maintain the output at the desired level.

There are different circuit configurations known as topologies, each having unique characteristics, advantages and modes of operation, which determines how the input power is transferred to the output. Most of the commonly used topologies such as flyback, push-pull, half bridge and full bridge, consist of a transformer to provide isolation, voltage scaling, and multiple output voltages. The non-isolated configurations do not have a transformer and the power conversion is provided by the inductive energy transfer.

Advantages of switched-mode power supplies:

  • Higher efficiency of 68% to 90%
  • Regulated and reliable outputs regardless of variations in input supply voltage
  • Small size and lighter
  • Flexible technology
  • High power density

Disadvantages of switched-mode power supplies:

  • Generates EMI
  • Complex circuit design
  • Expensive compared to linear supplies

Switched mode power supplies are used to power a wide variety of equipment such as computers, sensitive electronics, battery-operated devices and other equipment requiring high efficiency.

The computer systems and all other use the same with some different architecture. The functioning should be the same for every action with required output for the processing.


Scan Cycle of a PLC

Scan cycle of a PLC determines the cycle within which the PLC fetches inputs , runs the inputs and process the outputs. So as a whole we can say that there are 3 basic steps in scanning and each input, program and output scans acts as separate independent functions
1.Fetching the inputs and checking its status: Data from input modules are taken and placed in an area of PLC memory referred as input image area.
2. Execute the PLC program: Data from input image area is applied to corresponding user program and executed.
3. Updating the output status: Executed data from output image area is sent to the output modules.

Any change made in the input status during program or output scan will not be effective until the next scan, similarly changes made in the output status will take place only during output scan.

Program scanning in PLC takes place usually in two formats:

  1. From left to right across each rung defined as Rung Scanning (eg: AB) 
  2. From top to bottom defined as Column Scanning (eg :Schneider )in which the processor looks at the first contact at the top left corner and reads the first column.

From top to bottom, it next reads the second column from top to bottom, and so on. Both methods are appropriate but one should be aware of it as it has impact on whether a coil gets energized or de-energized.

Why PLC’s are preferred over Micro-controllers

The PLC is said as an Industrial Digital Computer designed for industrial usage like controlling processes or machinery. It contains various types of I/Os that are very suitably matching with the industrial instrumentation.It provides the flexibility in the programming using the “ladder language” that is similar to industrial standard “ladder Network” used for designing automatic control schemes in the plants. The overall system is of both modular and compact type enabling the user to add modules accordingly to increase the I/Os. It has the standard programming interface along with the online monitoring features.

Micro-controller is a microprocessor which can be used for specific and limited type of application.A micro controller contains one or more CPUs along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals.It has less programming memory, available as a single chip solution for smaller applications. PLC internally uses a micro controller to handle all inputs,outputs & logical scans. Micro controllers are cores which is not easy as PLC to be programmed. PLC works with power and Micro-controller works with electronic i.e. PLC works with relays while Micro-controller works with transistors (even it may work with electronic relays). Usually the Micro controller doesn’t work as a stand alone controller but it come as a part of electronic circuit or device while the PLC is a stand alone controlling device that I can program it for any process accordingly.From among all the differences the major difference between a PLC and a  micro controller is that PLC works on both ac and dc with high voltages while micro controller works on low voltage dc system so that’s the reason why PLC’s are used in big industries instead of micro controller.

Encoders finds their application in various applications in industry. From Instrumentation point of view we can see Encoder as a device which provide us the pulses for rotatory movement. In Most of the applications it is used to provide the feedback and thus a better controlling.

Omron Rotary encoder E6B2 comes with open collector output and as well as line driver output. It has external shaft dia up to 40mm and it has a resolution of up to 2000PPR.

Some may want to know what is PPR in encoders ?? well PPR stands for Pulse Per Revolution i.e the number of pulses it will be giving in one full revolution.Also as per our need we can select either PNP or NPN type output. Generally in all the cases we need to interface the encoder with PLC to receive the PULSES.

The use of encoders in Automation is for detecting/calculating the length or distance traveled with the input from encoder pulses , for measuring the speed or for high-processing of data.


How to Connect Encoder to PLC?

For connecting the Encoder to our PLC we have to make sure that our PLC accepts high speed counter inputs and we have to connect the encoder accordingly to that terminals only. Omron PLC CP1E/CP1H have 4 high speed counter inputs and we can connect up to 4/6 encoders.

Omron encoder E6B2 series have 5 wires and of different colour. Make connections as depicted below.

Wire Colour ————————————————————-Type

Brown——————————————————————- + 24 V DC
Blue ——————————————————————- 0 V Dc
Black —————————————————————— Output Phase A
White —————————————————————— Ouput Phase B
Orange —————————————————————– Phase Z

So connect your Encoder accordingly as shown above. Here we will tell you how to interface it with PLC. We will take example of OMRON PLC CP1E. We have to just connect 3 wires to PLC high speed counter Terminals and configure them in the software for Receiving the Pulses.

Interfacing the Encoder with Omron PLC CP1E:-

We will take example here as connecting the encoder to High speed counter 0.

Encoder Side——————————————————–PLC Side

Black————————————————————– 0.0
White————————————————————– 0.1
Orange————————————————————- 0.4

Similarly we can connect it to any high speed counter input , just we have to check what are the terminals assigned for that High Speed counter in PLC.

After making the connections we have to write the suitable PLC Program for the reading of Pulses and processing the PV value of Encoder.