Switched Mode Power Supply is the source for many applications with required level of voltage configurations. One big level to another smaller one is the major aspect with an SMPS. A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) is an electronic circuit that converts power using switching devices that are turned on and off at high frequencies, and storage components such as inductors or capacitors to supply power when the switching device is in its non-conduction state. Switching power supplies have high efficiencies and are widely used in a variety of electronic equipment, including computers and other sensitive equipment requiring stable and efficient power supply. A switched-mode power supply is also known as a switch-mode power supply or switching-mode power supply.
The mode of rectification involves a rectifier bridge to effectively covert AC to DC with eliminating the ripples. Capacitor performs the ripple elimination with greater conduction of AC flow. The factors affecting the performance of each diode is manipulated and rectified efficiently. The harmonic generation is also a factor to discuss. With greater accuracy semi conductor devices, the losses also get minimized.
Switched-mode power supplies are classified according to the type of input and output voltages. The four major categories are:
- AC to DC
- DC to DC
- DC to AC
- AC to AC
A basic isolated AC to DC switched-mode power supply consists of:
- Input rectifier and filter
- Inverter consisting of switching devices such as MOSFETs
- Output rectifier and filter
- Feedback and control circuit
The input DC supply from a rectifier or battery is fed to the inverter where it is turned on and off at high frequencies of between 20 KHz and 200 KHz by the switching MOSFET or power transistors. The high-frequency voltage pulses from the inverter are fed to the transformer primary winding, and the secondary AC output is rectified and smoothed to produce the required DC voltages. A feedback circuit monitors the output voltage and instructs the control circuit to adjust the duty cycle to maintain the output at the desired level.
There are different circuit configurations known as topologies, each having unique characteristics, advantages and modes of operation, which determines how the input power is transferred to the output. Most of the commonly used topologies such as flyback, push-pull, half bridge and full bridge, consist of a transformer to provide isolation, voltage scaling, and multiple output voltages. The non-isolated configurations do not have a transformer and the power conversion is provided by the inductive energy transfer.
Advantages of switched-mode power supplies:
- Higher efficiency of 68% to 90%
- Regulated and reliable outputs regardless of variations in input supply voltage
- Small size and lighter
- Flexible technology
- High power density
Disadvantages of switched-mode power supplies:
- Generates EMI
- Complex circuit design
- Expensive compared to linear supplies
Switched mode power supplies are used to power a wide variety of equipment such as computers, sensitive electronics, battery-operated devices and other equipment requiring high efficiency.
The computer systems and all other use the same with some different architecture. The functioning should be the same for every action with required output for the processing.